Mathematical expressions

In the case of multiple layers, Miki noticed that the real part of the surface impedance when computed with the original Delany-Bazley model sometimes becomes negative at low frequencies denoting a non-physical result. From Delany and Bazley measurements data realized 20 years before on fibrous materials with porosities close to 1.00, Miki proposes to use the following expressions for the wave number and characteristic impedance (a $+j\omega t$ time convention is assumed):

\[ Z_{c} = \rho_{0} c_{0} \Bigg[ 1+5.50 \left(10^3\frac{f}{\sigma}\right)^{-0.632} - j 8.43 \left(10^3\frac{f}{\sigma}\right)^{-0.632} \Bigg] \]
\[ k = \displaystyle{\frac{\omega}{c_{0}}} \Bigg[ 1 + 7.81 \left(10^3\frac{f}{\sigma}\right)^{-0.618} - j 11.41 \left(10^3\frac{f}{\sigma}\right)^{-0.618} \Bigg] \]

The elapsed time between the original Delany-Bazley model and Miki modifications of it explains, partly, the extensive use of Delany-Bazley expressions although Miki corrections are preferable to use.

The boundaries, proposed by Delany and Bazley, for the validity of their original expressions are:

\[ 0.01 < \displaystyle{\frac{f}{\sigma}} < 1.00 \]

Miki takes care not to extrapolate these boudaries even if he had observed his revised expressions are well behaved in a larger frequency range, in particular for $f/\sigma < 0.01$


Check this basic online Delany-Bazley-Miki simulation or follow the link comparison_DB70_DBM90.m to download a Matlab/GNU Octave script which compares the model by Delany-Bazley and the model by Delany-Bazley-Miki:

% comparison of models by Delany-Bazley 
% and Delany-Bazley-Miki
% M. E. Delany and E. N. Bazley, 
% Acoustical properties of fibrous absorbent materials,
% Applied Acoustics (3), 1970, pp. 105-116
% Y. Miki
% Acoustical properties of porous materials 
% - modifications of Delany-Bazley models -
% J. Acoust. Soc. Jpn. (E), 11 (1), 1990, pp. 19-24
% Copyleft 2006
% cf. APMR on the web,
% PropagationModels/MotionlessSkeleton/DelanyBazleyMikiModel.html
% for more information